In the LINC/ESL class, instructors “cross barriers of understanding, aptitudes, behaviours, desires, and knowledge” (Rappel, 2013) in hopes of helping newcomers successfully adapt to life in a multicultural community. In this context, I think that Knowle’s five assumptions of andragogy are as useful as ever: clear learning intents and expectation, teacher-student collaboration, student-student collaboration, timely feedback, and engagement in self-reflection.
I believe these practices can be helpful in creating a learning environment in which students take ownership of learning through mutual respect and co-operation. While these principles are also supported by PBLA guidelines, the application of it brings some challenges as well.
A dissonance in values and practice?
Some core values that I strive for are inclusive and shared learning, tolerance and respect, personal agency, and careful listening. Teaching a group of people from different cultures and ethnicities provides a joyful opportunity to discover our similarities and differences as we learn to appreciate each other through negotiation and dialogue. In my opinion, there is little room for prescribed curriculum and rigid evaluation practices. Instead, as McNiff stated in his book, Action Research: All You Need to Know, the goal of communicative language learning is achieved by sharing knowledge through close listening and clear dialogue that brings mutual understanding.
It is unfortunate that too often, the classroom cycle of learning, practicing, and assessing has become more prescriptive since the start of PBLA. Rather than creating a learning process that engages the students to set language learning goals, demonstrate learning, and reflect on needs and ability, students chase after the next assessment and instructors scramble to teach everything that is required for them to be successful. In this way, the method of assessing becomes a barrier for students to find delight in the learning process.
Finding New Perspectives on PBLA
Finding new and creative ways to teach and assess while using PBLA is a challenge. Often it will depend upon your personal teaching style as well as how the program is implemented at your place of work.
Some exasperating issues that I hear discussed frequently
- The program policy of continuous intake makes thematic teaching and participatory projects difficult to conduct due to student absence, attrition, and late joiners.
- Integrating self-reflective practice when so many students are in survival mode in a new country learning a new language and coming from vastly different situations.
Also at issue, according to Brookfield in his book, Powerful Techniques for Teaching Adults, the constant promotion in western culture of the “self-directed learner” is a social construct that runs counter to the cultural identity of learners from group-identity cultures.
Three questions that I ask myself often as I deliver lessons
- How can I make connections between learners’ experience and the subject matter?
This is fairly easy to do through a warm up question and discussion exercise with intermediate and high level leaners. With beginner and literacy students – it takes a lot of creativity – along with some artistic and acting talent. All levels can relate to a video or images to activate prior knowledge/experience.
- What instructional methods enable each learner to succeed personally and socially and how can I incorporate them?
It takes a lot of time observing learners, talking with them, and seeing how they work through lessons and worksheets to gather this information. Unfortunately, if you have a revolving door of students or your own work placements, this becomes more difficult.
- How can I encourage learners to see the benefits of learning for the sake of learning rather than learning just to take an assessment and go to the next level?
Here is the million-dollar question for all of us. All that I can say here is that I try to help them understand that assessments are NOT tests – they are given to see how the learners are coming along in their understanding of English.
If anyone has some thoughts on these questions – or has other questions to add, please add to the comments below.
Knowles, M.S., Holton III, E.F., and Swanson, R.A. (1998) The Adult Learner. Butterworth:Heinemann.
Rappel, L. (2013). Developing intercultural awareness in second language education: Teaching language through narrative. https://foliocdnfiles.azureedge.net/files/ufyGNOo20_g?